Imidazole and its derivatives possess a wide-range of biological activities that include anti-inflammatory [ 65 ], anti-tumor [ 66 ], anti-fungal [ 67 ] efficacies. Some marketed drugs like omeprazole consist of modified imidazole as a core unit [ 68 ]. Nikoofar et al. In , Alinezhad et al. Very recently, in , Paul et al. Nano-crystalline ZnO catalyzed simple, efficient, environmentally benign protocol was developed by Swami et al.
After completion of the reaction, the catalyst was recovered and reused four times without any significant loss in catalytic activity. Shafiee et al. Sadeghi et al. Dihydropyrimidinones 26 possess significant biological efficacies that include antiviral, antibacterial, antihypertensive and antitumor activity [ 77 ]. In , Hassanpour et al.
Bioactive Heterocyclic Compound Classes: Pharmaceuticals and Agrochemicals, 2 Volume Set
After completion of the reaction, the catalyst was recovered and reused successfully without any significant loss in catalytic activity. Azarifar et al. Imidazo[1,2- a ]quinolines possess immense biological efficacies that include antiallergic [ 82 ], anxiolytic [ 83 ] activity. Recently, in , a simple, efficient and ultrasound-assisted convenient protocol was developed by Abaszadeh et al.
Many marketed drugs such as alpidem anxiolytic , zolpidem hypnotic , and zolimidine antiulcer contains imidazo[1,2- a ]pyridine as the core structural unit [ 87 , 88 ]. Sadjadi et al. Benzodiazepine represents core structural motif in many marketed drugs such as olanzapine and clozapine schizophrenia treatment [ 91 ], clobazam anxiolytic agents [ 92 ], etc.
Wiley-VCH - Bioactive Heterocyclic Compound Classes
Ghasemzadeh et al. For this transformation, ZnO nanoparicles were found to be much more efficient than the commercial ZnO. After completion of the reaction, they were able to recover ZnO nanoparticles and reused six times without apparent loss in catalytic activity. Synthesis of furan derivatives Furans are very common in naturally occurring bioactive heterocycles. This important structural motif has gained considerable attention because of its significant biological efficacies.
Many marketed drugs such as rubrolide, sarcophine, benfurodil hemisuccinate [ 94 , 95 ] contain furan skeleton. Benzo[ b ]furan containing heterocycles possesses immense pharmaceutical efficacies that include antifungal [ ], antitumor [ ] activity. Tekale et al. After completion of the reaction, ZnO nanoparticles were recovered and reused several times without apparent loss in its catalytic efficacy.
Safaei-Ghomi et al. Pyrans and pyran-annulated heterocyclic scaffolds possess a broad spectrum of significant biological activities that include anticancer, cytotoxic, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial activity [ , , ]. Xanthenes, in particular, 1,8-dioxo-octahydroxanthene moieties, have received significant attention due to their potent pharmacological efficacies such as antimicrobial, anticancer and enzyme inhibitory activity [ , , ].
Recently, Safaei-Ghomi et al. After completion of reaction, nano-ZnO was successfully recovered and recycled for five successive runs with little loss in the catalytic activity. Short reaction times, high yields, easy workup procedure, wide substrate tolerance, small catalyst loading, reusability of the catalyst and solvent-free conditions are some of the salient features of these developed protocols.
Coumarins are very common in the naturally occurring heterocycles like warfarin, phenprocoumon, coumatetralyl, carbochromen, bromadialone, etc. Heterocycles containing this important structural motif exhibit a wide range of pharmaceutical activities that include antibacterial, anti-HIV, antiviral, anticoagulant, antioxidant and anticancer activities [ , , , , ].
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Kumar et al. After completion of reaction, nano-ZnO was successfully recovered and recycled for several runs with consistent catalytic activity. During optimization, ZnO nanoparicles were found to be much more efficient than the commercially available bulk ZnO. During optimization it was found that the catalytic activity of nano-ZnO is superior to the other nano metal oxides such as nano-Al 2 O 3 , nano-MgO tested for these reactions.
Nano-ZnO was recovered easily and recycled six times without significant loss in catalytic activity.
In the same year, from the same batch of reactions, Sachdeva et al. Heravi et al. Use of nano-ZnO as catalyst offers several advantages such as operational simplicity, wide range of substrate tolerance, easy work-up and high yields of products. Siddiqui et al. Haerizade et al. Synthesis of thieno[2,3-c]pyridine derivatives Sangshetti et al. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities. Among them compounds 85f , 85k , 85l have promising antibacterial as well as antifungal efficacies whereas compound 85j possess promising antibacterial activity.
Ziraka et al. During optimization it was found that the catalytic activity of combined nano ZnO—TiO 2 is superior to the individual effect of nano ZnO or nano Bi 2 O 3. Albadi et al. After completion of reaction, the catalyst was recovered easily and recycled for several runs without loss in catalytic activity.
Acknowledgements The author is grateful to Dr. Brahmachari, G. Banerjee, B. Wu, J.
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