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Bottom: Simulated measurements in year vertical axis vs. We show results for two BSE compositional estimates, previously termed medium-Q and low-Q models 21 , With this reduction in uncertainty on the mantle flux, by a factor of 2. It is also seen in Fig. Its reduction offers the greatest potential to further pin down the mantle contribution. The Jinping detector and Fig.

Each of these five detectors can independently see the mantle given the slope 1 requirement. Coupling data from continental based detectors with constraints from an oceanic based detector will provide unprecedented opportunities to critically evaluate competing models of crust composition. In this regard Jinping represents a significant test case with its exceptionally thick crust and distinctly bright geoneutrino flux. Recent advances in antineutrino detection technology have been in directionality studies Primary focus in geoneutrino directionality analyses has been the variation of the crust and mantle signals with the incoming dip angle 56 , In Fig.

While currently unable to measure geoneutrino directionality, predictions of azimuthal signal intensity provide insight into the geology of the local crust and inform mapping and sampling efforts for regional geologic models. The Jinping measurement, combined with geoneutrino measurements at other continental sites, is currently our best chance at resolving the mantle signal. Dedicated geophysical effort toward an accurate local lithospheric model is required. This is a realistic goal, given the wealth of geophysical data in this well studied seismogenic region at the boundary between the Tibetan Plateau and the Sichuan Basin.

Refinement to model predictions of the lithospheric flux are crucial to reducing the uncertainty estimates of the mantle flux. The strategy mapped out here reveals that geoneutrino data will constrain the amount of radiogenic heat production in the mantle by combining all measurements from continental detection sites to reduce the uncertainty. These data will place limits on the amount of heat producing elements inside the Earth, describe the planetary abundances of the refractory lithophile elements, and thus define the building blocks of the Earth The geoneutrino flux at Jinping location is calculated in the usual way 37 , 40 , 59 , We average the effect of neutrino oscillations by using the average survival probability.

Depth-dependent density in the mantle is taken from PREM Within each of the chemical reservoirs i. A sketch of the model, showing the global structure and the distinct chemical reservoirs, is shown in Supplementary Figure S1. Uncertainty in the input abundances of Th and U is propagated using a Monte Carlo approach. The selection of CLM abundances is assumed to follow a log-normal distribution We assume that Th and U abundances within a reservoir are fully correlated when performing their Monte Carlo fluctuations. We find, however, that some degree of correlation must be introduced between abundances in DM and the rest of the model, in order to prevent unphysical situations where abundances in EM are below DM values or even negative.

1. Introduction

The somewhat smaller absolute uncertainty in the total predicted geoneutrino flux compared to the lithospheric flux Table 1 results from the anti-correlation between abundances in EM and abundances in layers of the lithosphere and in DM when balancing the inventory of elements in BSE. Boyet, M. Science , — Burkhardt, C.

Meteoritic Nd isotope constraints on the origin and composition of the Earth.


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Campbell, I. Evidence against a chondritic Earth. Nature , — Fukai, R. Nucleosynthetic neodymium isotope anomalies in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. Jellinek, A. Connections between the bulk composition, geodynamics and habitability of Earth. Nature Geosci. Gomi, H. Earth Planet. Pozzo, M. Seagle, C. Electrical and thermal transport properties of iron and iron-silicon alloy at high pressure. Geophysical Research Letters 40 , — Direct measurement of thermal conductivity in solid iron at planetary core conditions. Nature , 99— Ohta, K. Nature , 95—98 Jaupart, C. Temperatures, heat, and energy in the mantle of the Earth.

In Bercovici, D. Mantle Dynamics, of Treatise on Geophysics vol. Editor-in-chief G. Davies, J. Global map of solid Earth surface heat flow.

The Sterile Neutrino Discovery

Huang, Y. A reference Earth model for the heat-producing elements and associated geoneutrino flux.


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Korenaga, J. Deschamps, F. Temperature and heat flux scalings for isoviscous thermal convection in spherical geometry. Lenardic, A. Nakagawa, T. Influence of magmatism on mantle cooling, surface heat flow and Urey ratio. Dye, S.

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Geo-neutrinos and Earth models. McDonough, W. The composition of the lower mantle and core. In Terasaki, H. Cowan, C. Detection of the free neutrino: a confirmation.

Araki, T. Bellini, G. Observation of geo-neutrinos. B , — Chen, M. Earth, Moon, Planets 99 , — An, F. Neutrino physics with JUNO. G 43 , arXiv Beacom, J. Letter of Intent: Jinping Neutrino Experiment. Baldoncini, M. Reference worldwide model for antineutrinos from reactors. D 91 , Gando, A. Partial radiogenic heat model for Earth revealed by geoneutrino measurements. Furnish , et al.

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