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Rate this product:. Sponsored products for you. FREE Shipping. Brand Brand: Springer. The chairman of Bank of China, a big commercial lender, is far more candid about the potential hazards of shadow banking. Shadow banking in China assumes various guises. The most basic are the illegal loan sharks who operate mainly in wealthy coastal regions, providing high-interest loans to small businesses that are often ignored by mainstream banks.

The biggest of the non-bank institutions are trusts, companies akin to hedge funds. They cater to rich investors and promise high returns by lending to risky customers, especially property developers. A range of industrial companies, from shipbuilders to oil majors, also engage in shadow banking as a side business.

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Estimates about the size of shadow banking vary widely depending on how it is defined. For all the difficulties of making a calculation, one thing is apparent: its rapid growth. Trusts, the backbone of the shadow sector, had Rmb6. A senior commercial banker who worked as a regulator until last year says the complexity of the shadow products was also increasing.

When wealthy Chinese invest directly in trust products, it is clear that they are getting into shadow finance. That is far less clear with wealth management products, or WMPs — but these are the rocket fuel behind the surge in shadow finance. Banks market WMPs to ordinary customers as higher-yielding alternatives to plain deposits.

Even though these are highly visible mainstream lenders, they do not disclose in detail that these higher yields are obtained by putting much of the money to work in shadow finance. In effect, for every three renminbi saved in ordinary banks, Chinese households and companies will soon be depositing one with shadow banks. Outside one branch in the Chaoyang district of Beijing, a long screen stretches over the windows advertising the latest WMP deals.

The role of financial regulation

The vast majority gave hazy descriptions of how the money would be used. The Bank of Communications, for example, explained that 30 per cent to per cent of the funds raised through one of its WMPs would be invested in bond, money-market instruments or the interbank market — and that up to 70 per cent might go to trust products.

Financial regulation - Wikipedia

It provided no further details. When the Bank of Hebei sold a 5. Langfang, a city of about , people, sits under a thick blanket of smog between Beijing and Tianjin, both of which have populations of more than 10m. But RiseSun is far from alone in pursuing the market, a fact shown by the touts handing out property advertisements. To stay ahead of the competition, RiseSun has been scaling up quickly. The deal structure could allow RiseSun Real Estate, the listed entity, to appear less indebted since it is RiseSun Holding, the parent company, that is borrowing from outside sources.

Put simply, this means that customers at the Bank of Hebei who have been buying WMPs, reputed to be as safe as deposits, have actually been financing shadow loans to a property developer clocking up debt in a city with a frothy housing market.

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Thus it has nothing to do with our business. Still, the most obvious risk in shadow banking is that of defaults.

Shadow banks have generated good returns precisely by financing the businesses shunned by banks. The rates on the trust loans to RiseSun, for instance, have been as high as But the regulator has ordered banks to rein in their lending to property developers for a reason — their debts have soared over the past five years. There are signs that shadow banks could now be running into trouble. A month later, Huarong International Trust was repaid only after a local government bailed out its client, LDK Solar, a maker of solar panels.

There are other problems as well. Chinese banks have long hewed to a dull lending model, making 80 per cent of their profits from interest margins guaranteed by regulatory controls.

Banking Regulation 12222 | Spain

The rise of shadow banking is undermining that model as banks compete for customers by offering higher rates. There is also concern about the stability of the funding base for shadow banks. The most popular WMPs have durations of one to three months. But the funds provide financing for much longer terms, often multi-year loans.

The duration mismatch is not an issue so long as the bank can redeem maturing products with money flowing in to buy new ones.